Phenotypic responses and individuality in aquatic ectotherms

Cover of: Phenotypic responses and individuality in aquatic ectotherms |

Published by JAPAGA in Ashford, County Wicklow .

Written in English

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Subjects:

  • Cold-blooded animals -- Congresses.,
  • Fishes -- Congresses.,
  • Genetic polymorphism -- Congresses.,
  • Shellfish -- Congresses.,
  • Temperature -- Physiological aspects -- Congresses.

Edition Notes

Book details

Statementedited by John Carlson Aldrich.
ContributionsAldrich, John Carlson.
Classifications
LC ClassificationsQP82.2.T4 P54 1989
The Physical Object
Paginationviii, 212 p. :
Number of Pages212
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL16649086M
ISBN 100951443704, 0951443712

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G. Hirst, David Atkinson, Brian Enquist Temperature-size responses match latitudinal-size clines in arthropods, revealing critical differences between aquatic and terrestrial species, Ecology Lett no.4 4 (Feb ): –Cited by: The phenotypic plasticity of vegetative traits is a characteristic feature of aquatic plants, promoting survival and growth in the heterogeneous environments typical of wetlands.

Less is known about plastic responses of life-history and reproductive traits, particularly patterns of sex allocation. 1. Of 61 studies of aquatic ectotherms, increased rearing temperature (apparently not stressful for growth and development) caused a reduction in organism size at a given developmental stage in 55 cases (%) and an increase in only six (%).Cited by:   Question 3: Define phenotypic adaptation.

Give one example. Answer Phenotypic adaptation involves changes in the body of an organism in response to genetic mutation or certain environmental changes.

These responsive adjustments occur in an organism in order to cope with environmental conditions present in their natural habitats. In aquatic ectotherms, temperature is closely linked to key physiological, developmental and behavioural processes, making fish highly sensitive to climatic and thermal conditions (Eliason et al.

In book: Phenotypic responses and individuality in aquatic ectotherms (pp) Chapter: Phenotypic variation in sympatric crab populations; Publisher: Japaga, Ireland.

Daily thermal fluctuations (DTFs) impact the capacity of ectotherms to maintain performance and energetic demands because of thermodynamic effects on physiological processes.

Mechanisms that reduce the thermal sensitivity of physiological traits may buffer ectotherms from the consequences of DTFs. Species that experience varying degrees of DTFs in their environments may differ in their.

Ectotherms may respond to variable environmental conditions by altering their Phenotypic responses and individuality in aquatic ectotherms book. Phenotypic plasticity was initially thought to be beneficial to an organism's physiological fitness but several alternative hypotheses have been proposed with growing empirical support.

In this study, we tested the full suite of hypotheses by investigating acclimation responses of locomotor performance. Instead, only changes in phenotypic responses could be measured. Also, while some descriptive research had been conducted, a solid, unbiased statistical model for quantifying and comparing the responses remained elusive.

It wasn’t until that a quantitative method. Populations that span a large geographic range often experience a thermal gradient that can differentially affect the phenotypic response of individuals across the population. Variation in temperature has been shown to affect the final adult size of ectotherms, which is referred to as the temperature-size rule for ectotherms.

Body size is a fundamentally important trait, as it can impact. Phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptations of mitochondria to temperature H.

Guderley and J. St Pierre; 7. Temperature and ontogeny in ectotherms: muscle phenotype in fish I. Johnston, V. Vieira and J. Hill; 8. Ectotherm life-history responses to developmental temperature D.

Atkinson; 9. Full Text; PDF ( K) PDF-Plus ( K) Citing articles; Thermal reaction norms in sperm performance of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)Craig F.

Purchase, a Ian A.E. Butts, b c Alexandre Alonso-Fernández, d Edward A. Trippel b a Biology Department, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St.

John’s, NL A1B 3X9, Canada. b Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. Andrews Biological Station, St. Andrews, N.B. LIRIAS description Global warming is causing plastic and evolutionary changes in the phenotypes of ectotherms. Yet, we have limited knowledge on how the interplay between plasticity and evolution shapes thermal responses and underlying gene expression patterns.

Reid DG, Abelló P, McGaw IJ, Naylor E () Phenotypic variation in sympatric crab populations. In: Aldrich JC Phenotypic responses and individuality in aquatic ectotherms book Phenotypic responses and individuality in aquatic ectotherms.

Japaga, Dublin, pp 89– Google Scholar. About this book Introduction Chapters focus on phenotypic screening, the use of human cell models, microscopic approaches, assays to measure fat accumulation in C.

elegans, the threat response in zebrafish, and protein-protein interactions in plant growth and development. Abstract. Ongoing climate change is affecting animal physiology in many parts of the world. Using metabolism, the oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis provides a tool to predict the responses of ectothermic animals to variation in temperature, oxygen availability and pH in the aquatic environment.

The physiological ability of small aquatic ectotherms to acclimate functional processes to temperature variation may be greater than previously thought, and these results have implications for understanding the responses of aquatic ectotherms’ to global temperature change.

Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology, Evolution and Conservation In ecological speciation species differentiate in phenotypic traits in response to divergent selection associated with the exploitation of different ecological environments.

Ecological speciation may give insight into one of the most intriguing open questions in evolutionary ecology.

The genus Stenotrophomonas (Gammaproteobacteria) has a broad environmental distribution. maltophilia is its best known species because it is a globally emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) opportunistic nosocomial pathogen.

Members of this species are known to display high genetic, ecological and phenotypic diversity, forming the so-called S. maltophilia complex (Smc). Responses of aquatic invertebrates to salinity and hydroperiod.

Increased evaporation and changed rainfall patterns are expected to increase salinity levels and to shorten hydroperiods under climate change (Schindler ; Moss ).In contrast to temperature, effects of salinity and hydroperiod on fitness-related traits have been much less studied in freshwater invertebrates and not.

We examine the role of fire and aquatic export in offsetting the terrestrial carbon sink in a fire‐prone, monsoonal savanna area of the wet‐dry tropics.

We find that while the area is a large carbon sink, fire emissions and aquatic export via rivers and seasonal wetlands. 1 INTRODUCTION. It is well known that environmental temperature (T a) is the abiotic factor with major influence in the evolution, ecology, and physiology of most of the biodiversity in the planet (Angilletta, and references therein).The effects of T a are particularly relevant for ectotherms as their body temperature (T b) depends on T a and therefore any change in T a affects their.

Full Text; PDF ( K) PDF-Plus ( K) Citing articles; Winter temperature and food quality affect age at maturity: an experimental test with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)Bror Jonsson, a Anders G.

Finstad, b Nina Jonsson a a Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Gaustadalléen 21, NO Oslo, Norway. b Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, P.O. BoxSluppen, NO Trondheim. Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an organism to express different phenotypes depending on the biotic or abiotic environment ().Single genotypes can change their chemistry, physiology, development, morphology, or behavior or in response to environmental cues.

Fisher and other 20th century evolutionary biologists lacked explanations for phenotypic plasticity (). Trophic Position of Consumers and Size Structure of Food Webs across Aquatic and Terrestrial Ecosystems. Anton M. Potapov, Ulrich Brose, Stefan Meta-analysis Shows That Rapid Phenotypic Change in Angiosperms in Response to Environmental Change Is Followed by Stasis.

e-Book access is included with your membership. Download this issue now. Organisms can live at high altitude, either on land, in water, or while sed oxygen availability and decreased temperature make life at such altitudes challenging, though many species have been successfully adapted via considerable physiological changes.

As opposed to short-term acclimatisation (immediate physiological response to changing environment), high-altitude adaptation.

Recently, Seebacher et al. () collated data from ectotherms and suggested that thermal acclimation capacity of physiological traits was greater in ectotherms that live in more stable environments. They further suggested that aquatic animals might have a greater acclimation capacity compared to terrestrial ones.

process in which favorable heritable traits increase in successive generations of a population of reproducing organisms and unfavorable heritable traits decrease, due to differential reproduction of genotypes. organisms with favorable phenotypes are more likely to survive and reproduce so the genotype associated with the favorable phenotype will increase in frequency over generations, which.

Life histories evolve in response to constraints on the time available for growth and development. Nesting date and its plasticity in response to spring temperature may therefore be important components of fitness in oviparous ectotherms near their northern range limit, as reproducing early provides more time for embryos to complete development before winter.

Evolutionary responses to recent climate change have been documented in several systems, for phenotypic traits that include seasonal timing [2–4], coloration and thermal sensitivity [6,7]. These studies demonstrate that organisms can evolve in response to climate warming over the timescale of one to a few decades.

There is much discussion in the media about protecting biodiversity. But does biodiversity really matter. Canadian and Swiss researchers wanted to know if the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was important to the productivity of grasslands (M.G.A.

van der Heijden, J. Klironomos, M. Ursic, P. Moutoglis, R. Streitwolf-Engel, T. Boler, A. Wiemken, and I. Sanders. Phenotypic plasticity refers to some of the changes in an organism's behavior, morphology and physiology in response to a unique environment.

Fundamental to the way in which organisms cope with environmental variation, phenotypic plasticity encompasses all types of environmentally induced changes (e.g.

morphological, physiological, behavioural, phenological) that may or may not be. INTRODUCTION These regulations shall be read in conjunction with the Special Faculty and General Academic Regulations. The course develops from observations of biological phenomena at the broadest scales (Biosphere and Ecosystems) to those at the finest (molecular) level.

Strong emphasis is placed throughout on methods of biological investigations. The interrelationship of Biological. Responses help ensure survival of the organism and allow the organism to carry out its biological activities.

The collective responses of an organism constitute the behavior of the organism. Living Things Reproduce and Develop.

Reproduction is the ability of every type of organism to give rise to another organism like itself. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Science Biology Chapter 13 Organisms And Populations are provided here with simple step-by-step explanations. These solutions for Organisms And Populations are extremely popular among Class 12 Science students for Biology Organisms And Populations Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for exams.

Generally, most evidence for phenotypic plasticity as an important trait of invasive organisms is derived from plants [15–19] with some studies also investigating vertebrates, aquatic organisms [7,21–27], entognatha [28,29] or insects [8,30,31].

Evidence from terrestrial molluscs, however, is largely lacking. Recent Reviews. Kingsolver, et al. reviews the literature to ask how strong phenotypic selection is, on average. The authors summarize data from thirteen years of selection studies.

Hoekstra, et al. uses a closely related data set to ask questions about sexual and viability selection. Hereford, et al. presents a different view of the average strength of selection by using.

Damselflies (Odonata: Zygoptera) are charismatic diurnal insects which are ectotherms and consequently highly affected by ongoing climate change and increasing temperatures in Northern Europe. We study geographic variation in phenotypic traits and behaviours in Southern Sweden and Scandinavia, and adress the question if gene flow keeps marginal.

Most organisms experience environments that vary continuously over time, yet researchers generally study phenotypic responses to abrupt and sustained changes in environmental conditions.

Gradual environmental changes, whether predictable or stochastic, might affect organisms differently than do abrupt changes. To explore this possibility, we exposed terrestrial isopods. Beyond buying time: the role of plasticity in phenotypic adaptation to rapid environmental change. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, () (LINK).

Tropical ectotherms are expected to be particularly sensitive to this temperature increase because they live close to their thermal limits. We investigated the phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary response of sperm traits in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to increased temperatures after 6, 18, and 24 : Scientific Evaluator at Pest.

A new voice in the nature-nurture debate can be heard at the interface between evolution and development. Phenotypic integration--or, how large numbers of characteristics are related to make up the whole organism, and how these relationships evolve and change their function--is a major growth area in research, attracting the attention of evolutionary biologists, developmen/5(4).The 'reaction norm' represents the 'normal' phenotypic response to the environment, something we often mistake as being the genetic 'design.' The book covers the somewhat daunting topics of allometry, ontogeny and epigentics, but does so in a very readable way.

The books is accessible to the interested scientific reader regardless of s: 1.

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